Despite its proximity to the city of San Miguel de Allende, El Charco del Ingenio boasts abundant and varied flora and fauna, nurtured through years of constant protection and soil conservation work. The size of the reserve - some 180 hectares including the Botanical Garden, Landeta Park and the arroyos and reservoirs - as well as the varied topography and the moisture conditions provide a diversified ecosystem, which is undergoing a process of healthy recovery.  
Foto Jennifer Haas
    Various studies and inventories of the flora and fauna of site have been carried out, some published. Among these works, the magnificent book by Walter L. Meagher and Wayne Colony, "Wild and Wonderful: Nature Up Close in the Botanical Garden El Charco del Ingenio", published in 2008, stands out. Meagher also compiled an exhaustive list of flora of El Charco, which includes a total of 535 species belonging to 85 botanical families. In association with this study of flora, 51 species of lichens were likewise identified within the reserve (T. Nash et al.).  

El Charco now has, because of work recently completed, listings of the biodiversity of five animal groups: 156 species of migratory and resident birds (S. & W. Colony), 32 species of mammals (R. Aviña), 18 species of reptiles and amphibians (R. Hernández), as well as 110 species of butterflies (S. & W. Colony) and 11 species of dragonflies and damselflies (S. & W. Colony). These listings for assessing richness give El Charco a database for identifying species designated as endemic, at risk, or under special protection under Mexican federal law.


The area of conservation is made up of three clearly defined zones, which correspond to three wildlife habitats: the canyon, the dry scrubland and the wetlands.